The speed at which guidance needs to be produced during the COVID-19 outbreak poses a huge challenge to guidance producing bodies around the globe. How to appraise and include wide ranging types of knowledge to come to robust guidance in the absence of frequentist (RCT-based) evidence? How to do so without resorting to expert opinion without empirical checks-and-balances? And how to balance harms, benefits and efficiencies, especially when already marginalized communities risk paying the highest price?

This is a shared initiative of the Athena Institute and the Appraising and Including Different Knowledge (AID Knowledge) working group of the Guidelines-International-Network.
Contributors to the conversation: Frode Forland, Specialist Director Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, and former GIN Trustee, Sietse Wieringa, Guidelines researcher at University of Oxford, COVID-19 ward medical professional in London, member of AID Knowledge, Tomris Cesuroglu, lecturer of Global Health Systems at Athena Institute, involved in COVID-19 guidance production in Turkey. Reflections by: Fergus Macbeth, former Director of Guidelines, National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK, former GIN Trustee